COVID-19's Continued Impact on Low- to Moderate-Income Communities

The spread of COVID-19 is having an impact on communities nationwide, particularly low- to moderate-income and underserved households. To best respond to this crisis, information is needed about the scope and scale of the pandemic’s challenges. Throughout 2020, all 12 Reserve Banks and the Fed Board of Governors are surveying representatives of nonprofit organizations, financial institutions, government agencies, and other community organizations to understand the effects of COVID-19 on low- to moderate-income communities and the entities serving them. The results of each survey will be released as a downloadable report.

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Perspectives from Main Street: October 2020

In the survey conducted between October 7-16, 2020, 1,127 respondents participated. In this fourth round of the survey, 59 percent of respondents note they are anticipating a difficult economic recovery due to COVID-19. Almost half of respondents (48 percent) indicated the pandemic is having a significant disruption on the low- to moderate-income entities they represent.









  • National Survey Reports

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    Perspectives from Main Street: August 2020 Adobe PDF file format

    In the survey conducted between August 5–12, 2020, 1,465 respondents participated. More than half of respondents (56 percent) noted that it will take longer than 12 months for their communities to return to pre-pandemic conditions.


    cover image for Perspectives from Main Street: June 2020

    Perspectives from Main Street: June 2020 Adobe PDF file format

    In the survey conducted June 3–12, 2020, 1,869 respondents participated. Sixty percent indicated that COVID-19 caused significant disruptions on the economic conditions of the communities they serve and expected recovery to be difficult.


    cover image for Perspectives from Main Street: April 2020

    Perspectives from Main Street: April 2020 Adobe PDF file format

    In the survey conducted April 8–10, 2020, nearly 3,900 respondents participated. At that time, over one-third (35 percent) indicated it would take more than 12 months for their communities to return to the economic conditions experienced before the COVID-19 pandemic.


  • About the Survey

    The spread of the coronavirus (COVID-19) and the many efforts to slow it is affecting communities across the nation. In order to best respond to this crisis, information is needed about the scope and scale of challenges in various communities. Survey responses were collected through a convenience sampling method that relied on Reserve Bank and Board of Governors stakeholder contact databases to identify representatives of nonprofit organizations, financial institutions, government agencies, and other community organizations. These representatives were invited by email to participate in an online survey.

  • Events

    The Impact of COVID-19 on Communities and Small Businesses
    On July 14, 2020, Philadelphia Fed president Patrick T. Harker and Claire Kramer Mills, assistant vice president at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, participated in a webinar discussing the key findings of the of the June 2020 nationwide survey of nonprofit organizations, financial institutions, government agencies, and other community organizations.

    COVID-19 Community Impact Survey Webinar
    On May 27, 2020, Atlanta Fed president Raphael Bostic participated in a webinar discussing the results of the April 2020 nationwide survey of nonprofit organizations, financial institutions, government agencies, and other community organizations.

    Leone de Nie Shares National Survey Results
    On May 21, 2020, Karen Leone de Nie, vice president of community and economic development at the Atlanta Fed, shared insights from the April 2020 national Federal Reserve survey of nearly 4,000 organizations that work in low-income communities.