Uniform Commercial Codes: Bringing Business to Indian Country - January 15, 2013
Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta
Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis
Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco
U.S. Department of the Interior's Office of Indian Energy and Economic Development
Coushatta Multi-Purpose Complex
1974 C.C. Bell Road
Date and Time
Tuesday, January 15, 2013
8:30 a.m.–3:00 p.m. CT
The legal infrastructure for many aspects of commerce is a given in most places. The code provides uniformity among state laws, enabling efficient cross-border business to take place. Because all states have adopted Article 9, lenders and borrowers usually feel confident the law will protect their interests—even if the two parties are located in different states.
On the reservations and other tribal lands collectively known as Indian Country, it's often a different story. As sovereign nations, American Indian tribes are not subject to state law and are free to adopt their own commercial codes. As a result, tribal commercial laws—to the extent they have been adopted at all—vary in depth and breadth. Laws governing secured transactions are absent or weak on many reservations, which can make outside parties reluctant to lend to tribal entities, entrepreneurs, and consumers. The uncertain legal environment introduces an element of risk. Many lenders respond to the risk in one of two ways: avoiding it altogether by not offering loans, or offsetting it by shortening loan terms and charging high interest. The situation limits access to affordable credit, which is a fundamental component of any sustainable business venture. That, in turn, hinders economic development in Indian Country.
This workshop will provide information on the benefits of adopting a secured transaction code, and it offers available resources for tribes, including a model code and Implementation Guide developed by the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws (NCCUSL). The Implementation Guide features plain-language commentary on each provision of the code. It also discusses UCC filing system options for tribes, incorporates a model filing system regulation, and raises important policy issues for tribal legislatures to consider.
For more information, please contact Nancy Montoya at 504-593-3256 or Nancy.Montoya@atl.frb.org.
Related Links on Other Sites
- Coushatta Multi-Purpose Complex
- 2011 Fed National Summit on Growing Economies in Indian Country
- Minneapolis Fed article on Crow Nation-Montana UCC compact
- Minneapolis Fed article on Oglala Sioux-South Dakota UCC agreement
- Minneapolis Fed article on Crow Nation adoption of first secured transaction code
- Minneapolis Fed article on Model Tribal Act
- Minneapolis Fed report on secured transaction codes